This study evaluates four measures discussed by the European Parliament, the European Commission and others, to improve anti-money laundering policy. First, identifying high-risk countries through blacklisting. Second, reducing laundering through letterbox or shell companies. Third, harmonising EU AML policies through regulations. Fourth, strengthening the European executive, e.g. through a European public prosecutor, a European FIU, a European supervisor, or a European police also in the light of COVID-19. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).